Two Days for the Night of One — 10:1-27

The starting point for this expositional series can be found here.
The previous entry can be read here.

Long, long ago, in literary history, there was a war raging. It was raging because of a woman who had “a face that launched a thousand ships.” Helen of Troy had been married to King Menelaus of Sparta but ran away to Troy with Prince Paris. When King Menelaus found her missing, he sent an army to Troy to bring her home.

At one point, early on in the war, the Spartan army is making sacrifices to their gods, at which point Homer records King Menelaus’s brother, Agamemnon, praying, “Zeus, most glorious, supreme, that dwellest in heaven, and ridest upon the storm-cloud, grant that the sun may not go down, nor the night fall, till the palace of [the king of Troy] is laid low, and its gates are consumed with fire.”[1]

The importance of this quote will be clearly seen after we read our text for today.

Today’s Text

Our historian writes, “Now Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem heard that Joshua had captured Ai and completely destroyed it, treating Ai and its king as he had Jericho and its king, and that the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were ⌊living⌋ among them. So Adoni-zedek and his people were greatly alarmed because Gibeon was a large city like one of the royal cities; it was larger than Ai, and all its men were warriors. Therefore Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem sent ⌊word⌋ to Hoham king of Hebron, Piram king of Jarmuth, Japhia king of Lachish, and Debir king of Eglon, saying, ‘Come up and help me. We will attack Gibeon, because they have made peace with Joshua and the Israelites.’ So the five Amorite kings—the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon—joined forces, advanced with all their armies, besieged Gibeon, and fought against it. Then the men of Gibeon sent ⌊word⌋ to Joshua in the camp at Gilgal: ‘Don’t abandon your servants. Come quickly and save us! Help us, for all the Amorite kings living in the hill country have joined forces against us.’ So Joshua and his whole military force, including all the fighting men, came from Gilgal. The LORD said to Joshua, ‘Do not be afraid of them, for I have handed them over to you. Not one of them will be able to stand against you.’ So Joshua caught them by surprise, after marching all night from Gilgal. The LORD threw them into confusion before Israel. He defeated them in a great slaughter at Gibeon, chased them through the ascent of Beth-horon, and struck them down as far as Azekah and Makkedah. As they fled before Israel, the LORD threw large hailstones on them from the sky along the descent of Beth-horon all the way to Azekah, and they died. More of them died from the hail than the Israelites killed with the sword. On the day the LORD gave the Amorites over to the Israelites, Joshua spoke to the LORD in the presence of Israel: ‘Sun, stand still over Gibeon, and moon, over the Valley of Aijalon.’ And the sun stood still and the moon stopped until the nation took vengeance on its enemies. Isn’t this written in the Book of Jashar? So the sun stopped in the middle of the sky and delayed its setting almost a full day. There has been no day like it before or since, when the LORD listened to the voice of a man, because the LORD fought for Israel. Then Joshua and all Israel with him returned to the camp at Gilgal. Now the five ⌊defeated⌋ kings had fled and hidden themselves in the cave at Makkedah. It was reported to Joshua: ‘The five kings have been found; they are hiding in the cave at Makkedah.’ Joshua said, ‘Roll large stones against the mouth of the cave, and station men by it to guard the kings. But as for the rest of you, don’t stay there. Pursue your enemies and attack them from behind. Don’t let them enter their cities, for the LORD your God has handed them over to you.’ So Joshua and the Israelites finished inflicting a terrible slaughter on them until they were destroyed, although a few survivors ran away to the fortified cities. The people returned safely to Joshua in the camp at Makkedah. And no one dared to threaten the Israelites. Then Joshua said, ‘Open the mouth of the cave, and bring those five kings to me out of there.’ That is what they did. They brought the five kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon to Joshua out of the cave. When they had brought the kings to him, Joshua summoned all the men of Israel and said to the military commanders who had accompanied him, ‘Come here and put your feet on the necks of these kings.’ So the commanders came forward and put their feet on their necks. Joshua said to them, ‘Do not be afraid or discouraged. Be strong and courageous, for the LORD will do this to all the enemies you fight.’ After this, Joshua struck them down and executed them. He hung their bodies on five trees and they were there until evening. At sunset Joshua commanded that they be taken down from the trees and thrown into the cave where they had hidden. Then large stones were placed against the mouth of the cave, and the stones are there to this day.”

Where we’ve been…

To go back—briefly—to the opening story, biblical scholars recognize parallels between the tale in Homer and the biblical narrative.[2] What makes this especially intriguing is that “the last level of Troy VI, Level VIh, ended shortly before 1300 BC, and ended as a result of widespread destruction.”[3]

The best date for the Israelites Exodus from Egypt is 1446 BC[4], with forty years of wandering in the desert before the conquest, leading us to a date of 1406 BC for the book of Joshua to begin. By no means does it line up exactly between Homer and the book of Joshua, but Homer’s account is not yet over.

After Agamemnon makes his offering and prayer, we read the following: “Thus he prayed, but the son of Cronus [i.e. Zeus] would not fulfill his prayer.”[5] So Homer is not trying to explain a day that lasted longer in recorded Greek history.

However, when it comes to understanding The Iliad, it must be remembered that only for about the past 200 years has anyone actually believed that the stories related by Homer were even based on an actual historical occurrence.[6] “People do not always pause sufficiently to ask what sort of a work the Iliad is. . . . The Iliad, composed five hundred years after the events it purports to describe, is an imaginative creation of a world mostly very different from the contemporary world of the poet. It cannot be treated as a work of history.”[7] Other Greek historians ask, “Do [The Iliad and The Odyssey] reflect a real society? If so, of what era? Or do they reveal, rather, the values and norms of later Greeks, who contrasted their own time with a former ‘age of heroes’?”[8]

I would argue that the last question hits the nail on the head. The Iliad sought to give the Greek people an entertaining story set in an ancient, historical time. As such, and also given the fact that it was 500 years removed from the events it described, i believe that an argument could be made that by Homer including Agamemnon’s prayer for the sun to stop in the sky, Homer is alluding to a historical occurrence that the world experienced, even though the prayer was not answered when Agamemnon requested it.

But in Microsoft Word, i’ve already gone a whole double-spaced page nerding out on Ancient Greek literature. So instead, let me sum up by saying that i will bring up the importance of these facts again when we get to that portion of the text.

Something that adds credence to this view is that already throughout the book of Joshua, God has fought for His people. No scholar worth his salt who values his faith in Christ would ever question the historical validity of the Jordan River crossing as described both in Joshua 3 and Joshua 4. They also will not question the miraculous defeat of Jericho in Joshua 6. However, for some unknown reason (though i have some personal ideas) our text today is typically explained away.

However, when all is said and done, the miracle is not the main point of the text. What we see in the text is three different scenes all describing the same long day, including a day or two leading up to that long day. Our historian gives us three different views of the same event so that we can rest securely in the faithfulness and greatness of our God.

View #1: God’s people have each other’s backs (10:1-11)

First, we see that God’s people have each other’s backs. We read in verses 1-11, “Now Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem heard that Joshua had captured Ai and completely destroyed it, treating Ai and its king as he had Jericho and its king, and that the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were ⌊living⌋ among them. So Adoni-zedek and his people were greatly alarmed because Gibeon was a large city like one of the royal cities; it was larger than Ai, and all its men were warriors. Therefore Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem sent ⌊word⌋ to Hoham king of Hebron, Piram king of Jarmuth, Japhia king of Lachish, and Debir king of Eglon, saying, ‘Come up and help me. We will attack Gibeon, because they have made peace with Joshua and the Israelites.’ So the five Amorite kings—the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon—joined forces, advanced with all their armies, besieged Gibeon, and fought against it. Then the men of Gibeon sent ⌊word⌋ to Joshua in the camp at Gilgal: ‘Don’t abandon your servants. Come quickly and save us! Help us, for all the Amorite kings living in the hill country have joined forces against us.’ So Joshua and his whole military force, including all the fighting men, came from Gilgal. The LORD said to Joshua, ‘Do not be afraid of them, for I have handed them over to you. Not one of them will be able to stand against you.’ So Joshua caught them by surprise, after marching all night from Gilgal. The LORD threw them into confusion before Israel. He defeated them in a great slaughter at Gibeon, chased them through the ascent of Beth-horon, and struck them down as far as Azekah and Makkedah. As they fled before Israel, the LORD threw large hailstones on them from the sky along the descent of Beth-horon all the way to Azekah, and they died. More of them died from the hail than the Israelites killed with the sword.”

This story is intimately connected with the last entry in Joshua—9:1-27. In 9:1-2, we read, “When all the kings heard ⌊about Jericho and Ai⌋, those who were west of the Jordan in the hill country, in the Judean foothills, and all along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea toward Lebanon—the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites—  they formed a unified alliance to fight against Joshua and Israel.”

And now in 10:1-5, we get more details. The primary king is named: Adoni-Zedek. Exactly what he heard is named: Ai had been captured and burned, and Gibeon had made peace with Israel. It is worth noting that in 9:1-2, it literally reads, “When all the kings heard, those west of the Jordan.” The words provided in brackets are provided by the translators to help fill out English grammar, but i believe our historian left out the specifics until chapter 10 and used chapter 9 to give us the background (thus increasing our suspense): Gibeon made peace with Israel.

The reason given in 10:3-4 for the Canaanite king alliance is Gibeon. Adoni-Zedek is worried that Gibeon will lend its fighting men to Israel and cause Israel to prove victorious. As such, he writes to his fellow kings, “Come up and help me. We will attack Gibeon, because they have made peace with Joshua and the Israelites” (10:4).

The kings join him, and together they “advanced with all their armies, besieged Gibeon, and fought against it” (10:5).

When this attack force reaches Gibeon, Gibeon calls on God’s people. Their request is very similar to their self-perception in chapter 9. In 10:6, we read, “Don’t abandon your servants. Come quickly and save us! Help us.” In 9:8, 9, 11 the Gibeonites had referred to themselves as Israel’s servants. And, in 9:25, they had admitted, “We are in your hands. Do to us whatever you think is right.”

The Israelites could very easily have said in this moment of Gibeon’s need, “You tricked us. Now you are going to get what you deserve.” However, they don’t. Gibeon had assimilated into Israel—or at least it was promised them that in the coming months and years they would assimilate—and as members of God’s covenant people, they were now especially owed love and care.

The love and care for them comes in the fact that Joshua answers their plea instantly. There is no mention of Joshua seeking out the Lord’s will; rather, he takes the whole army and heads to Gibeon. While he is on his way, God speaks to Him and encourages him in his decision: “Do not be afraid of them, for I have handed them over to you. Not one of them will be able to stand against you” (10:8). The point being that God is always pleased when His people drop everything to help each other out. This is the definition of the Christian life (cf. 1 John 3:16-18).

And in this specific occurrence of God’s people living up to their calling of love, God shows His pleasure at their camaraderie by lending a helping hand. All over the area, God’s people achieve victory because, “The LORD threw [the enemy army] into confusion before Israel” (10:10a). And verse 11 sums up the day by describing how victory was achieved, “As they fled before Israel, the LORD threw large hailstones on them from the sky along the descent of Beth-horon all the way to Azekah, and they died. More of them died from the hail than the Israelites killed with the sword.”

God’s people are called to live in the trenches with each other, When someone is struggling with something—emotionally, spiritually, monetarily, etc.—God’s people must be quick to say, “I’ve got your back.” God will never be upset with this type of response. In fact, James writes, “So it is a sin for the person who knows to do what is good and doesn’t do it” (James 4:17). Are you quick to help your brother or sister in need? Or do you prefer to simply attempt to bless them with your words (cf. James 2:15-17)? If the Israelites had simply said, We’ll be praying for you, Gibeonites,” then the Gibeonites would have been overrun. Love must be action; it cannot be content with words!

View #2: God has His people’s back (and ultimately everything in His hand) (10:12-15)

Second we see that God has His people’s back (and ultimately everything in His hand). We read in verses 12-15, “On the day the LORD gave the Amorites over to the Israelites, Joshua spoke to the LORD in the presence of Israel: ‘Sun, stand still over Gibeon, and moon, over the Valley of Aijalon.’ And the sun stood still and the moon stopped until the nation took vengeance on its enemies. Isn’t this written in the Book of Jashar? So the sun stopped in the middle of the sky and delayed its setting almost a full day. There has been no day like it before or since, when the LORD listened to the voice of a man, because the LORD fought for Israel. Then Joshua and all Israel with him returned to the camp at Gilgal.”

Here we see that not only did God help by sending hailstones upon the enemy army, but in actuality He controlled the entirety of the cosmos to bring victory to His people. Verse 11 had summed up that the hailstones had killed more enemy soldiers than the sword, in a summary-of-the-day type of way, but verse 12 explains that these verses occur during the same day.

We must remember that God spoke these orbs into existence—Genesis 1:14-16—and ordered them to do their job of giving light during the day and night—Genesis 1:17-18. Because God created these lights, and because He determined their tasks, God is within His sovereign rights to make them pause for a day if He so desires.

As i mentioned in the introduction, Homer’s Iliad alludes to the sun stopping in the sky. And unfortunately, what happens far too often in biblical studies is that the emphasis gets lopsided. Instead of saying, “The ancient Greeks knew something about the sun standing still, like the Bible describes,” they will argue, “The biblical authors must have stolen that idea from Homer.” (This is especially the case when it comes to the flood. Because the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh describes a flood, the Bible must have stolen that idea for its own story.) NO! Rather than proving anything productive, it shows a hidden racism/anti-Semitism. Authors like this don’t think that the Israelites were intelligent enough to come up with these concepts on their own, so they say that they borrowed them from the surrounding cultures. Of any ancient nation, the least likely to borrow from surrounding cultures would be Israel. Leviticus 20:26 says, “You are to be holy to Me because I, Yahweh, am holy, and I have set you apart from the nations to be Mine” (emphasis added).

In addition, there is no proof that anyone borrowed anything from anyone else. The flood was a historical event, and all ancient cultures knew about it. The day the sun stood still—as Joshua 10 describes—was also a historical event, and this is why both the Bible and Homer reference this type of miraculous event.

As i mentioned above, it is especially interesting that Homer explains that this prayer was not answered for Agamemnon. This is because about a hundred years earlier Yahweh had already answered Joshua, and our historian had commented, “There has been no day like it before or since, when the LORD listened to the voice of a man, because the LORD fought for Israel” (10:14).

The fact that we don’t even see anything in Hollywood these days about the sun or moon stopping in the sky (i.e. the earth ceasing its rotation), tells me that the fact that we read about this in Homer is proof of the historicity of it. Hollywood creates some amazing “miracles,” but this is never one of them. If it was not meant to be understood literally, historically, why would Homer himself have referenced a similar miracle (even though the gods are not pleased to accomplish it)?

Commentators go haywire trying to explain away this miracle. I stand firmly on the side that this is meant to be understood as a literal, historical miracle. John MacArthur writes,

Some say an eclipse hid the sun, keeping its heat from Joshua’s worn soldiers and allowing coolness for battle. Others suppose a local (not universal) refraction of the sun’s rays such as the local darkness in Egypt (Ex. 10:21-23). Another view has it as only language of observation; i.e. it only seemed to Joshua’s men that the sun and moon stopped as God helped them do in one literal 24-hour day what would normally take longer. Others view it as lavish poetic description, not literal fact. However, such ideas fail to do justice to Josh. 10:12-14, and needlessly question God’s power as Creator. This is best accepted as an outright, monumental miracle.[9]

If you are interested in reading some of the more crazy views, including further elaboration on the ones MacArthur mentioned above, i copied a selection from a commentary[10] and saved it as a PDF on Google Drive.

However, despite my belief that this was a literal, historical event, a commentator adds a very helpful note. “[Joshua] is a man of prayer empowered to command the great ‘gods’ of Israel’s neighbors[11] (emphasis added). In Deuteronomy 4:19, Moses had told Israel, “When you look to the heavens and see the sun, moon, and stars—all the array of heaven—do not be led astray to bow down and worship them. The LORD your God has provided them for all people everywhere under heaven.” The people of Canaan worshipped the sun and moon.[12] It is likely that in ancient times battles typically took a break during the night hours.[13] Boice writes, “When the sun set, fighting would cease, and there was not enough time before sunset to achieve total victory.”[14] For the sun and moon to stop in the sky—confounding those who worshipped these heavenly orbs as gods—must have felt to the enemy kings and their soldiers that their gods had turned against them, because the extended day rendered them unable to sleep, refresh, and resume the battle the following morning.

In verse 15, we get the conclusion to the day for the second time: “Then Joshua and all Israel with him returned to the camp at Gilgal.” Again, we are reassured that Israel wins the day, but again, the day has not been fully explicated. The sun does not set until verse 27.

God fights for His people. Just like He split heaven and earth to send Jesus, He interfered in the cosmos when Joshua asked Him to, so that His people could win an overwhelming victory, and Gibeon—the newest addition to His people—could be rescued. How confident are you in the power and goodness of God? This is the God who is for us. If you’ve trusted in Christ, nothing can keep you from Him. Our text today proves this. Pray that He would strengthen your faith today!

View #3: God’s people will know God’s victory (10:16-27)

Thirdly, we see that God’s people will know God’s victory. We read in verses 16-27, “Now the five ⌊defeated⌋ kings had fled and hidden themselves in the cave at Makkedah. It was reported to Joshua: ‘The five kings have been found; they are hiding in the cave at Makkedah.’ Joshua said, ‘Roll large stones against the mouth of the cave, and station men by it to guard the kings. But as for the rest of you, don’t stay there. Pursue your enemies and attack them from behind. Don’t let them enter their cities, for the LORD your God has handed them over to you.’ So Joshua and the Israelites finished inflicting a terrible slaughter on them until they were destroyed, although a few survivors ran away to the fortified cities. The people returned safely to Joshua in the camp at Makkedah. And no one dared to threaten the Israelites. Then Joshua said, ‘Open the mouth of the cave, and bring those five kings to me out of there.’ That is what they did. They brought the five kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon to Joshua out of the cave. When they had brought the kings to him, Joshua summoned all the men of Israel and said to the military commanders who had accompanied him, ‘Come here and put your feet on the necks of these kings.’ So the commanders came forward and put their feet on their necks. Joshua said to them, ‘Do not be afraid or discouraged. Be strong and courageous, for the LORD will do this to all the enemies you fight.’ After this, Joshua struck them down and executed them. He hung their bodies on five trees and they were there until evening. At sunset Joshua commanded that they be taken down from the trees and thrown into the cave where they had hidden. Then large stones were placed against the mouth of the cave, and the stones are there to this day.”

The kings knew that they were defeated long before the battle was over. For this reason they fled, leaving their soldiers on the battlefield. (How amazing is it that even in our darkest hour, our King will never abandon us!)

When Joshua found out that the kings were hiding in a cave, he told his men to block them in the cave and go after the rest of the soldiers. This they do, pursuing them until the fleeing soldiers take refuge within their cities (cf. 10:28-43, which could still have taken place on the same day [add link when next post written]). After the fleeing soldiers make it within their cities, “the people returned safely to Joshua in the camp at Makkedah” (10:21a).

Joshua pulls the kings out of the cave, has his commanders place their feet on their necks—symbolizing victory and domination and conquest—and encourages them by saying, “Do not be afraid or discouraged. Be strong and courageous, for the LORD will do this to all the enemies you fight” (10:25). Then Joshua killed the kings and hangs their bodies on trees—symbolizing their cursed nature. The bodies remain on the trees until sunset (which potentially occurs after verses 28-42), at which point the conquered kings’ bodies are taken down and thrown into the cave in which they had sought safety and refuge. The very place they had run to hide became the resting place for their carcasses. (Similarly, wherever we seek refuge that is not Jesus Christ will become our eternal resting place. Don’t resist Him when He calls!)

The point our historian wants to get across to us is that God’s people will know His victory. The kings who set out to defeat God’s people ended up being defeated. As believers, we must unite with our brothers and sisters and fight the good fight of the faith together. If we do this, we will know the victory of God (cf. Matthew 25:31-46). If we fail to do this, we will be defeated by God and damned eternally.

How is your faith in the power of God to accomplish victory in your life? How is your faith in God’s Gospel power to conquer the unbelievers you know so that they can join your eternal family? How is your faith in God that leads you to be more than just a lover-through-words? He calls us to love through our actions! God’s victory is total, and His people will know it. Do you?

Today is the Day of Salvation

In 2 Corinthians 6:1-2, Paul writes, “Working together with Him, we also appeal to you, ‘Don’t receive God’s grace in vain.’ For He says: I heard you in an acceptable time, and I helped you in the day of salvation. Look, now is the acceptable time; now is the day of salvation” (emphasis added).

I have repeatedly emphasized throughout this study in Joshua that this book correlates to our Christian life in the simple fact that the Gospel will be victorious in conquering sinners and bringing them to saving faith in Christ. More than simply recounting a preemptive strike on Canaan, the book of Joshua foreshadows Jesus’ redemptive strike that continues to this day. This was previewed clearly both in the story of Rahab and in the story of the Gibeonites.

In addition, Paul wrote and preached that “now is the day of salvation” more than 700,000 days ago. I can’t explain the importance of this fact better than the ancient church Father, Origen. He wrote as follows about the longest day in the history of our cosmos:

In this manner, therefore, Jesus [Joshua] with his chiefs and princes comes to those who are attacked for his name by opposing powers, and not only does he furnish assistance in war, but also he extends the length of the day and, prolonging the extent of light, dispels the approaching night.

Therefore, if we are able, we want to disclose how our Lord Jesus prolonged the light and made a longer day, both for the salvation of humans and for the destruction of opposing powers.

Immediately after the Savior appeared, it was already the end of the world. Even he himself said, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has drawn near.” But he restrained and checked the day of consummation and forbade it to come. For God the Father, seeing that the salvation of the nations can be established only through him, says to him, “Ask from me and I shall give you the nations for your inheritance and the ends of the earth for your possession.”

Therefore, until the promise of the Father is fulfilled and the churches spring forth in the various nations and “the whole fullness of the nations” enter so that then “all Israel may be saved,” the day is lengthened and the setting is deferred and the sun never sinks down but always rises as long as “the sun of righteousness” pours the light of truth into the hearts of believers. But when the measure of believers is complete and the already weaker and depraved age of the final generation arrives, when “the love of many persons will grow cold by increasing iniquity” and very few persons remain in whom faith is found, then “the days will be shortened.”

In the same way, therefore, the Lord knows to extend the day when it is time for salvation and to shorten the day when it is time for tribulation and destruction. We, however, while we have the day and the extent of light is lengthened for us, “let us walk becomingly as in the day” and let us perform the works of light.[15]

It is currently the last hour of the last days (cf. 1 John 2:18). This day has been prolonged for more than 700,000 days, and it will continue to be extended until all of God’s enemies are conquered by the Gospel. However, like Adoni-Zedek and his associates in war, for those who insist on fighting against God and His people; for those who refuse to belief in Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection; for those who refuse to love the people of God by joining a local church, the end will come, and they will know defeat at the hands of God. There are two types of defeat at the hands of God. One is responsive; the other is rebellious.

Please don’t rebel against God and be destroyed when Christ returns. Rather, place your faith in Him today, commit to loving His people, and know the victory that comes by being defeated by the Gospel, responding in love and worship and faith.

In conclusion, our God is powerful. And even more important than the literal, historical nature of the sun and moon stopping in the sky, is the fact that God’s timeline (in a matter of speaking) is on pause until all of His people have been conquered by the Gospel. Do not wait until it is too late! Today is the day of salvation!

With this in mind, how is your evangelism? Today is the day of salvation!

Soli Deo Gloria
Solus Christus

The next post can be found here.

 

[1] Homer, The Iliad and the Odyssey (San Diego, CA: Canterbury Classics, 2011), 36.
[2] Richard S. Hess, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries – Joshua, (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Academic, 2011), WORDsearch CROSS e-book, 216.
[3] Simon Price and Peter Thonemann, The Birth of Classical Europe: a History from Troy to Augustine, The Penguin History of Europe (London: Penguin, 2011), 41.
[4] Charles F. Aling, Egypt and Bible History: from Earliest Times to 1000 B.C, Baker Studies in Biblical Archaeology (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1981), 96.
[5] Homer, The Iliad and the Odyssey, 36.
[6] Simon Price and Peter Thonemann, The Birth of Classical Europe, 11.
[7] Ibid., 41. Emphasis added.
[8] Sarah B. Pomeroy, A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture, 2nd ed. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009), 8.
[9] John MacArthur, The MacArthur Study Bible: English Standard Version (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2010), 314.
[10] David M. Howard, New American Commentary – Volume 5: Joshua, (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 1998), WORDsearch CROSS e-book, 240-248.
[11] Trent C. Butler, Joshua, WBC (Dallas, TX: Word, Incorporated, 1983), 117.
[12] Ibid., 116. “The poem is a direct address to the heavenly bodies. This is normal for Israel’s neighbors, where the sun and moon would be seen as gods.”
[13] Victor P. Hamilton, Handbook on the Historical Books (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2001), 52-53. “There seems also to be the tradition of calling off the battle after sunset (2 Sam. 2:24-28).”
[14] James Montgomery Boice, Joshua (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1989), 80-81.
[15] Origen, as quoted in John R. Franke, ed., Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1-2 Samuel, Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture (Downer’s Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2005), 59.

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